While the precise time and technique humans used to learn to skate are unknown the Dutch were recorded to be the earliest people to ice skate. During the 13th Century the Dutch would using canals and such to continue to communicate by ice skating from one village to another. Eventually skating had begun spread across the channel to countries like England and soon enough many of the first skating clubs and rinks had began to form. One of the first associations formed the Edinburgh Skating Club back in 1742. Many of the people that formed these clubs included many kings of England, queen Marie Antoinette, former president of France, Napoleon III, and German writer, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In 1772, a book describing figure skating by Robert Jones, a British lieutenant, was published in London. The book was intended to be only for men because women didn’t skate in the late 18th century. During the years 1858–1859, a skating pond had opened in Central Park, this re-sparked interest in the sport. With the newfound interest, New York founded “The Skating Club of New York” in 1863. In 1850, Philadelphian, Edward Bushnell changed the sport in a major way by creating steel blade skates to allow difficult moves and turns. In 1860, ballet dancer Jackson Haines incorporated ballet moves while skating. He is responsible for giving the sport dance and essentially creating the sport in general. These two American men further progressed the sport and revolutionized it by adding these elements. Before Jackson Haines, ice skating was a typically stiff sport with no dance or grace whatsoever. Jackson tried to spread his ideas to change ice skating style but was shot down by Americans and Victorian Europeans in hopes to continue the traditional way. However, countries like Sweden and Austria welcomed his ideas and used them. Many of the people who watched Haines were astounded at the way he moved on the ice. Some of his students founded the International Skating Union, the first international skating organization, in 1892 to honor him after his death. They then created first written down set of rules to figure skating. Figure skating is one the oldest sports listed in Olympic Winter Games as it made its debut in 1908 in London and appeared again in 1920 in Antwerp. People competed in men’s singles, women’s singles, and pair skating until 1972. Four years later ice dancing was introduced as the fourth event in the games.Compared to the sport we know today, figure skating has come a long way from its start. Back then the skates weren’t as sturdy as what we currently use and the ice wasn’t either because they would skate on ponds. The technique has changed as well which went from stiff and rigid to graceful and delicate. Instead of moving in figure eights and simple circles people have the ability to do intricate jumps, turns, spins, and even illegal backflips. For example named after Axel Paulsen the first skater to perform the move, the axel is jump with a forward take off. Another example would be a jump with a takeoff from the back inside edge of one foot called the Salchow after Ulrich Salchow. All in all, figure skating has developed and progressed since the Dutch used it as a way to communicate. It has turned into something graceful and overall amazing.