UNIT – produces the hormone called insulin that

UNIT 5
P3 : OUTLINE
THE GROSS STRUCTURE OF ALL MAIN BODY SYSTEMS

 

The
Digestive System

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Purpose: the
purpose of the digestive system is to break down food into smaller particles so
that they easily are absorbed by blood circulatory system

Main
organs and their functions:

Mouth
– to chew and grind up food.

Oesophagus
– pipe that connects mouth to stomach.

Stomach
– secrets an extraordinary strong acid that leads to breakdown of food
with enzymes

Pancreas
– produces the hormone called insulin that regulates blood sugar level.

– it also helps neutralize stomach acid.

Liver
– produce bile, which breakdown fat in foods.

Gallbladder
– pouch-like organ that stores bile for future use.

Small
Intestine – after digestion is complete, the chyme enters
the small intestine where it is absorbed into the bloodstream.

Large
Intestine – removes water from the chyme and store the
waste ready for excretion.

 

The
Excretory System

Purpose:
helps to removes excess water, salt and waste from the body.

Main
organs and their functions

Kidneys
– the kidney filters excess water and other waste products.

Rectum
– solid food waste travel out of the body through the rectum.

Skin –
removes excess water from the body in the form of sweat.

Lung –
removes the waste gas carbon dioxide

 

The Respiratory
System

Purpose:
maintains oxygen supply to cells and removes carbon dioxide and water
from the body.

Main
organs and their functions

Nose –
air comes in and out of the nose through the body.

Pharynx
– serves as a passage way for both air and food at the back of the
throat.

Larynx
– the larynx is responsible for voice production when u speak.

Trachea
– the trachea connects your pharynx to your lungs.

The
Circulatory System

Purpose: to
deliver oxygenated blood to the various cells and organ systems in your body so
they can undergo cellular respiration.

Main
organs and their functions

Heart
– the heart functions by pumping blood to the lungs and the systems of
the body.

Arteries
– carry blood away from the heart and to the main organs of the body.

Veins
– carry blood back to the heart away from the main organs of the body.

Capillaries
– small blood vessels where gas exchange occurs.

Blood
– the cell that flow through the circulatory system.

Spleen
– helps to filter out toxin in the blood.

 

The
Nervous System

Purpose:
to coordinate the body’s response to changes in its internal and
external environment.

Main
organs and their functions

Brain
– control centre of the body, where all processes are relayed through.

Spinal
cord – sends instructions to the brain to the rest of the body and the other
way round.

Nerves
– conduct impulses to muscle cells throughout the body.

 

The
Endocrine System

Purpose:
to control growth, development, metabolism and reproduction through
the production and secretion of hormones.

Main
organs

HypothalamusPituitary glandThyroidParathyroidAdrenal glandsPancreasTestesOvaries

 

The
Skeletal System

Purpose:
to provide structure and support to the human body.

Bones
are where new blood cells generated, and require the mineral calcium for
strength.

Main
bones of the human body

Femur (thigh bone )Radius and ulna (lower arm)Sternum (breast bone )Fibula and tibia (calf)Scalpula (shoulder)Coccyx (tail bone)Humerus (upper arm)Cranium(skull)Clavicle (shoulder blade)Vertebrae (back)Pelvic bonePhalanges (fingers/toes)

 

 

The
Muscular System

Purpose:
works with the skeletal and nervous system to produce movement, and
also help to circulate blood through the human body.

Muscle cells are fibrousMuscle contractions can be voluntary or
involuntary

Main
muscle in de human body

BicepsGlutesTricepsHamstringsDeltoids

The
immune system

Purpose:
to remove infectious diseases and other pathogens from the human body.

Main
organs and their functions

Skin –
the skin is the body first line of defence.

White
blood cells – white blood cells help fight infections by
attacking bacteria, viruses and germs that invade the body.

Lymph
Nodes – help restore fluid lost by the blood and return it to the circulator
systems.

 

The
Integumentary System

Purpose:
to act like a barrier to protect the body from the outside world
against disease, it also eliminate waste products, and regulate body
temperature.

Main
organs and functions

Epidermis
– layer of the skin that covers almost the entire body. The epidermis
rests upon and protects the deeper and thicker layer of the dermis of the skin.

Dermis
– the dermis is the deep layer of the skin found under the epidermis. It
give the skin its strength and elasticity.

Hypodermis
– the hypodermis serves as the flexible connection between the skin and
the underlying muscles and bones as well as a fat storages area.

Hair –
hair is an accessory organ of the skin

Nails
– nails are accessory organs of the skin

Sebaceous
glands – exocrine glands found in the dermis of the skin that produce an oily
secretion known as sebum.

 

The
Reproductive System

Purpose:
the female reproductive system is to produce egg cells, and to protect
and nourish the offspring until birth.

The
male reproductive system is to produce and deposit sperm.

The
main organs of the reproductive system

Female
reproductive system main organ

Vagina – a muscular can around 7.5
cm long that extends from the neck of the womb to the genitals, or vulva.Uterus ( womb ) – a
muscular organ, the entrance to the womb is the cervix, which has a small hole
in its centre called the osFallopian ( uterine ) tubes – these
tubes extend from the womb, one on each side. They both open near an ovary.
These wombs carry the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the womb.Ovaries – two small almond shapes
glands that contain ova. Sex hormones are also made by the ovaries.

Male
reproductive system main organs

Penis – contains tissue that
fills with blood during sexual arousal, it makes the penis erect.The testicles – small
oval sex glands located in a skin sack. Sperm and sex hormones are made by the
testicles.Epididymis – collect
and stores spermVas deferens – a
large tube that transport sperm to the urethra.Accessory sex glands – these
glands contribute nourishing fluid to the sperm.

 

Reference:

Moonie, N., Aldworth, C.,
Billingham, M and Talman, H. (2010) BTEC
Level 3 National Health and Social Care:Student Book 1. Pearson Edexcel
Ltd: Essex.

P4-
Explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy
metabolism in the body.

In this assignment I will explain how
the respiratory system and the digestive system interrelate to perform energy
metabolism.

Digestive
function: The purpose
of your digestive system is to take in food from your environment and break it
down into both microscopic and molecular levels. Through the process of digestion,
you break large molecules into smaller ones, that your intestine absorb into
the bloodstream. Cells then take up these nutrient molecules and use them to
build new molecules and provide for their cellular energy needs. Cells can also
store the molecules for later use.

Respiratory
function: Your respiratory
system takes in oxygen from the atmosphere and moves that oxygen into the bloodstream
allowing it  to move across the membranes
of the lungs into the blood vessels. The circulatory system then carries oxygen
to all the cells in the body and picks up carbon dioxide waste, which it returns
to the lungs. Carbon dioxide diffused from the blood into lungs, and then exhaled
into the atmosphere.

Digestive
dependence upon respiration

The digestive track is dependent upon
the respiratory system, because your digestive tract functions by using
muscular contractions to break up food and moves it the  tract. Smooth muscle in the stomach turns
food into a liquid, and contractions of the intestine move food through the
system. These muscles depend upon oxygen. In order to function without oxygen, your
digestive tract would stop working. For food to move from one organ to the
other energy is needed. This energy comes from cellular respiration.

Respiratory
dependence upon digestion

Similarly, your respiratory system wouldn’t
be able to function without the product of digestion. While the process of exhalation
is passive and doesn’t require muscular contraction, you contract the
respiratory muscles. Muscles need fuel in order to contract. And the fuel they
use is primarily in the form of carbohydrate and fat. The products of the
digestive tract provide the cells of the respiratory muscles with fuel in the
form of glucose.

M1-
Discuss the role of energy in the body

Your digestive and respiratory
systems, at first glance, seems very separated in their activities. In reality,
however, the systems work together intimately in several ways. The results of
respiratory activity allow the digestive tract to function, and vice versa.

The body cells depend upon products of
both the respiratory and the digestive systems functions in order to maintain
themselves. To produce energy, cells burn nutrient molecules fuel in oxygen.
The digestive tract provides the nutrient molecules, through the progress of
digestion. The respiratory tract provides oxygen. The two systems work together
to give your cells the ingredients they need to produce energy, which they use
to communicate, build cellular products and grow. The system works together to
provide energy to the body cells.

This shows how two systems are related
to each other for energy metabolism.

Energy exists in a number of forms
such as light, heat, sound, electrical, nuclear and also chemical which is
known to be the most common. Chemical energy is released in the breakdown of
food, or digestion. We can therefore say that chemical energy is within the
bonds of chemical compounds in atoms and molecules. As the bonds loosen or
break, the chemical reaction will take place and oxidation will take place. The
conservation of energy states that, energy can neither be created nor destroyed
only changed.

Energy is essential for the body to
survive. It is absolutely necessary to circulate blood, lymph as well as tissue
fluid around the body. If energy wasn’t present we wouldn’t be able to take
part in activities that we love to do, this would be because we need energy for
the movement of our muscles. It is used to transmit nerve impulses throughout
our body so that we are able to respond to changes within the environment. We
need energy to carry out respiration and to also synthesise new cells for carrying
out growth and repair. Energy is also important to build different molecules
e.g. enzymes and hormones from the simple ones produced after the digestion of
food.

 

Metabolism can be stated as when
nutrients are converted to energy by the body; it is the sum of both biological
and chemical processes within the body, relating to the amount of nutrients
used in each cell. Metabolism can then be divided into two processes, anabolism
and catabolism. Anabolism allows the formation of new tissues and the growth of
new cells. It also enables us to synthesise new large, complex molecules
instead of simple ones. However, in catabolism, these larger complex molecules
are broken down into simpler ones, and there components used by the body’s
cells.

In conclusion, energy metabolism is
very important regarding these two systems and no body system is able to work
in isolation. The digestive system and the respiratory system need and rely on
each other.

Reference:

https://www.livestrong.com/article/302607-how-do-the-digestive-respiratory-systems-work-together/
accessed 15th Dec 2017

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/digestive_system.aspx accessed 15th Dec 2017

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digestive_system accessed 15th Dec 2017

https://www.enkimd.com/how-do-the-digestive-respiratory-and-circulatory-work-together.html
accessed 15th Dec 2017

 

P5 Explain the concept of
homeostasis

M2 Discuss the probable homeostatic
responses to changes in the internal environment during exercise

Homeostasis
can be defined as the maintenance of a constant internal environment within the
body. Sensors within our body monitor a number of things including breathing,
heart rate, body temperature and also blood sugar levels. These can also be
known as detectors, which send signals to the control centre when there is a
change, or the value has deviated from the norm. This value will then be
corrected so that the norm can be maintained.

Negative
feedback is important in homeostasis and it responds when certain conditions
change. This therefore means that receptors and effectors, i.e. muscles or
organs, carry out a series of reactions so that these conditions can remain
constant. This may also be explained by saying that a change in internal body
conditions is detected by the receptor and the information from this is sent to
control centres in brain that activate effectors to show appropriate responses.

In
the medulla oblongata there are chemoreceptors which are adjacent to the
respiratory centre. These chemoreceptors are sensitive to the changes of
arterial concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Nerve impulses are then
sent to control centres in medulla thus changing the rate and depth of
ventilation. The increased intake of oxygen then brings the equilibrium back to
normal.

During
exercise, the muscles have to metabolise faster as they require both more
oxygen and nutrients. Due to this, the heart then pumps the blood harder and
faster to keep up this demand, as the heart is doing more work to supply this
blood. This means that more oxygen is required, meaning, the response given is
breathing being increased so that oxygen is pumped to all cells quicker. Due to
homeostasis, levels of oxygen in the blood are always being measured, ensuring
oxygen, carbon dioxide and also pH levels return to their norm. Messages that
are sent to the effectors informing them that the breathing rate has to be
increased, however, will decrease again when all activity has been stopped.

Homeostasis
also controls heart rate. The medulla which is located within the brain also
controls heart rate. It sends information or messages normally in form of
chemicals/hormones. When we are carrying out exercise the heart has to supply
oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. There is information sent to the
medulla from the muscles via the nervous system. This allows the release of
chemicals, to travel to the sinus node. The sinus node then therefore
stimulates the contractions of the heart, also increasing the force which in
turn, increases heart rate. When you are at rest, or stop exercising, another
message is sent to the medulla, which in turn releases a hormone, slowing the
heart rate. When engaging in more intense exercise, another hormone is
released, increasing heart rate to supply more oxygen to the body.

The
level of glucose within the blood is also controlled by homeostasis. The
maintenance of the level of glucose within the blood involves both the pancreas
and the liver. Islets of Langerhans are cells located in the pancreas and these
secrete two hormones known as insulin and glucagon. Blood sugar rises after we
have ate a meal resulting in the stimulation of the pancreas cells, releasing
more insulin, enabling the sugar uptake by cells and also the storage of sugar
within the liver and muscles. As a result, blood sugar levels are decreased. If
however, blood glucose levels are low, the body will not be able to produce the
sufficient amount of ATP needed for bodily functions. The liver then breaks glucagon
down into glucose which is then released into the blood. Glucose levels in the
blood have now risen and there is no need for the release of glucagon. During
exercise there is a demand for glucose due to the contraction of the muscles
and more energy being required and so this causes an increased uptake of
glucose to working skeletal muscles. Normal blood glucose levels however, can
be maintained during exercise by increased glucose production and the release
through the stimulation of the breakdown of glycogen and glucose synthesis from
other substances. This increase allows the maintenance of blood sugars. When we
stop exercising, receptors send information to the liver telling it to slow
down glucose production.

 Heat can be gained or lost from the body by
different ways including radiation, evaporation, convection and conduction.
Radiation is when heat from the body is given off into the atmosphere.
Evaporation is when you sweat and the evaporation from the liquid generates
heat, resulting in a cooling effect. Convection is the process of heat leaving
the body via moving air flowing by the skin. Conduction is the transfer of heat
from direct contact with another object.

The
main control centre in the brain that controls body temperature is known as the
thermoregulatory centre. When we exercise, body temperature will increase as
the body is working hard in attempt to be able to have more oxygen in the blood
which then can be delivered to the muscles providing them with energy. Change
within the temperature in the blood is detected by thermoreceptors. There are
also receptors which are in the skin and they detect changes in temperature
within the environment. Homeostasis will occur due to the negative feedback
triggering homeostatic mechanisms. The hypothalamus in the brain detects
signals and sends impulses to both blood vessels and sweat glands. This
therefore increases the process of heat loss by conduction and radiation.
Increased sweetening is due to the sweat glands releasing a salty liquid onto
the skins surface, taking heat with it. Blood vessels can also dilate allowing
more blood to flow through. The blood flows close to the body’s surface meaning
that there is increased radiation. This is a process known as vasodilation.
Also due to an increased body temperature there will also be increased
sweating, and the need to drink due to thirst. When we become too cold however,
the opposite of this happens and begin to shiver as a mechanism to rise body
temperature. Heat loss will be reduced as the hairs on the skin stand so that they
are able to trap a layer of air, acting as an insulator.

In
conclusion, homeostasis is important as it maintains the appropriate levels
within our body that our cells need to function properly and it allows us to
adapt to environmental changes. It keeps the body at a norm, however, if
conditions are at the extreme, the negative feedback mechanism will no longer
work, resulting in death, if there is no medical help.

 

Reference:

http://www.livestrong.com/article/369714-how-does-the-body-maintain-homeostasis-in-response-to-exercise/

http://www.markedbyteachers.com/as-and-a-level/healthcare/explain-the-importance-of-homeostasis-in-maintaining-the-healthy-functioning-of-the-body-examples-from-diabetes.html

 

P6
– Follow guidelines to interpret collected data for heart rate, breathing and
temperature before after a standard period of exercise.

M3
– Present data collected before and after a standard period of exercise with
reference to validity.

 

Hypothesis:

During exercise the heart rate and
breathing rate will increase, with the blood pressure as opposed to a relax
state.

 

Equipment
required:

Heart rate monitor

Stop watch

 

Method:

I use my sister for this assignment. I
let her rest for 5 minutes, to make sure she was relaxed. Then I measure her
heart rate (pulse), temperature and time she breathe in a minute and note wrote
it down. Then I let her run for 3 minutes and take her measurements again.

 

 

Resting

After
exercise

Heart
rate

89

104

Breathe
rate

48

55

temperature

36.4

36.4

 

Aerobic respiration takes place.
Breathe rate increase to bring more oxygen in the body. The heart rate
increases when exercising so the homeostasis controls the blood pump around the
body, so you wouldn’t have heart failure. The heart work double time to supply
blood. The lungs also take more oxygen and your breathing rates gets high, so you
tend to hyperventilate. Energy and fluid stores also gets depleted during
intense workout so you tend to feel hungry and thirsty.

 

Conclusion:

The homeostasis controls our breathing
rate, heart rate and our temperature so we could exercise easily and if we
didn’t have it, we would die. This explains how important the homeostasis is.

 

Reference:

https://www.livestrong.com/article/538416-do-physically-fit-women-sweat-more/
2017