There to shape the laws. Clearly, because of

There are many motives behind
the American revolution such as economic, political, Intellectual and
religious. Each one of them plays important role to bring American Colonies to
desire independency rather than be a part of British Empire. However, which one
of them was a foundation
for the growth of other motives and which one of them triggered
the independency movement. Those are the questions I will try to answer in this
paper. Despite of the nature of first arrival to the New World which was the seeking
religious freedom, the motive behind majority of immigrants was economic
opportunity which new word offers. During the revolution era, because of lack
of professional politician most of political position occupied by people who
has wealth and desire. Those two characteristics, wealth and desire, mostly
possessed by large
landowners and merchants. The capital brings power and influence that needed for
collaboration of others with the decision they will make later.  Additionally, they have grate motive to do so
because most of the time the political decisions effects the economics
conditions which was important for them to protect their interest by possessing
the political power to shape the laws. Clearly, because of the nature of
economic activity of people who shape the political sphere and immigrants
desire to gain economical advantage which they had not possess in mother land. Indeed,
economic motivation plays more important role than the other reason. 
     

To understand the economical role, we need
to look back when the British government start to pursue Salutary neglect policy
which mostly leave the trade regulations for the colonies in colonies hands and
more political power to govern
themselves as long as the colonies remained loyal to the British
government and contributed to the economic profitability of Britain. This
“salutary neglect” contributed involuntarily to the increasing autonomy of
colonial legal and legislative institutions, which ultimately led to American
independence. With imperial
authority so weak, the large landowners, merchants, and lawyers who dominated
colonial assemblies increasingly claimed the right to control local politics. Elected
colonial assemblies used their control of finance to exert influence over appointed
governors and councils. Although governors desired secure incomes for
themselves and permanent revenue for their administrations. Moreover,
Typically, members of the British gentry who had suffered financial reversals
and hoped to recoup their fortunes in America, governors learned that to rule
effectively they would have to cooperate with the colonial elite. Economic
development enhanced the power of American elites, the assemblies they
dominated became more and more confident. Their leaders insisted that
assemblies possessed the same rights and powers in local affairs as the House
of Commons enjoyed in Britain. The most successful governors were those who
accommodated the rising power of the assemblies and used their appointive
powers and control of land grants to win allies among assembly members.
Clearly, the result of “salutary neglect” was gaining more
political power for colonies but the motivation to gain more political power
was economical reason. The effects of economic power were self-government
experiences and political independence for the colonies which caused considerable expansion of political
organization and debate independent of the government, where an informed
citizenry openly discussed questions that had previously been the preserve of
officials. In Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, clubs proliferated where
literary in the eighteenth century. philosophical, scientific, and political
issues were debated. Among the best known was the Junto, a “club for mutual
improvement” founded by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia for weekly discussion
of political and economic questions. In addition, Colonial newspapers strongly
defended freedom of the press as a central component of liberty, insisting that
the citizenry had a right to monitor the workings of government and subject
public officials to criticism. Many newspapers reprinted passages from Cato’s
Letters in which Trenchard and Gordon strongly opposed prosecutions for
libel. “Without freedom of thought,” they declared, “there can be no such thing
as wisdom, and no such thing as public liberty, without freedom of speech.”

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The
other economic reason that prepared the colonists to act toward the
independency was Navigation Act. The first Navigation Act, which aimed to gain
control of world trade from the Dutch, whose merchants profited from free trade
with all parts of the world and all existing empires. England’s new economic
policy, mercantilism, rested on the idea that England should enjoy the profits
arising from the English empire. According to the Navigation laws, certain
“enumerated” goods—essentially the most valuable colonial products, such as
tobacco and sugar—had to be transported in English ships and sold initially in
English ports, although they could then be re-exported to foreign markets.
Similarly, most European goods imported into the colonies had to be shipped
through England, where customs duties were paid. This enabled English
merchants, manufacturers, shipbuilders, and sailors to reap the benefits of
colonial trade, and the government to enjoy added income from taxes. But on the
other hand, as members of the empire, American colonies would profit as well,
since their ships were considered English. Indeed, the Navigation Acts
stimulated the rise of New England’s shipbuilding industry. Until the
mid-1670s, the North American colonies had essentially governed themselves,
with little interference from England. New England colonies elected their own
officials and openly flouted trade regulations. In 1675, England established
the Lords of Trade to oversee colonial affairs. Three years later, the Lords
questioned the Massachusetts government about its compliance with the
Navigation Acts. They received the surprising reply that since the colony had
no representatives in Parliament, the Acts did not apply to it unless the
Massachusetts General Court approved. However, Most Americans did not complain
about British regulation of their trade because commerce enriched the colonies
as well as the mother country and lax enforcement of the Navigation Acts
allowed smuggling to flourish. In a dangerous world, moreover, the Royal Navy
protected American shipping. Overall, the navigation system was
mutually profitable to colonies and mother country. Resistance to the acts
emerged periodically, however. In the late seventeenth century, for example,
colonists complained that James II used the Navigation Acts to hamper colonial
economic autonomy. Colonists also resisted British attempts to use trade law as
taxation measures. Occasionally, parliamentary prohibitions discouraged
colonial industries if they threatened serious competition with an important
home industry. More Importantly, resistance to the law was simple
negligence—either by ignoring specific restrictions or by smuggling which
flourished in the colonies throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Parliament’s delays in empowering customs agents, the distance between Britain
and its colonies, and the length and complex geography of the North American
coastline all made thorough enforcement of the Navigation and Trade Acts nearly
impossible. As a result, foreign goods proliferated through the colonies, and
many colonial materials left North America on foreign vessels. Smuggling was so
widespread that, in the mid-eighteenth century, measures such as the Revenue
Act and the Tea Act, which reduced duties in the legitimate trade while
cracking down on smugglers, sparked some of the fiercest patriot resistance. As we observed the economic interest
conflict brings the colonists to seek more political power and self-governed
opportunity. Obviously, most of the officials as we discussed was business man
or related to them and the decisions they made mostly motivated by economic
profit.   

After the French-Indian War in America,
and Seven-Year War in Europe, Great Britain’s treasury was nearly depleted.
Britain asked the colonies to help pay for their defense through a series of
taxes, which cause colonies resistance against the new tax policy. Americans
began to insist that because they were unrepresented in Parliament, the British
government could not tax the colonies. However, the British government passed
laws placing taxes on the colonists in America such as Sugar Act in 1764, the
Stamp Act, and a variety of other laws that were meant to get money from the
colonists for Great Britain. Britain Parliament executed those series of the
taxes without colonial agreement but local authorities, mainly large landowners and merchants, were
ready to defend their authority in the name of liberty and claimed the right to
govern their own affairs. In October 1765, the Stamp Act Congress, with
twenty-seven delegates from nine colonies, including, met in New York and insist
that the right to consent to taxation was “essential to the freedom of a
people.” Soon, merchants throughout the colonies agreed to boycott British
goods until Parliament repealed the Stamp Act. This was the first major cooperative
resistance among Britain’s colonies. In New York City, the conflict causes the
birth of Sons of Liberty group led by talented and ambitious lesser merchants
like Alexander McDougall, Isaac Sears, and John Lamb. The Sons of Liberty posted notices reading “Liberty, Property,
and No Stamps” and took the lead in enforcing the boycott of British imports.
The boycott began in Boston and soon spread to the southern colonies. Reliance
on American rather than British goods, on homespun clothing rather than
imported finery, became a symbol of American resistance. The next crisis was
tea act which the East India Company, the British government, offered a series
of rebates and tax exemptions. These enabled it to dump low-priced tea on the
American market, undercutting both established merchants and smugglers. But
many colonists insisted that to pay it on this large new body of imports would
acknowledge Britain’s right to tax the colonies. Clearly, any
resistance caused by economic motive even the leader of political movement such
as Sons of Liberty was merchants. Moreover, most of the resistances battles
field were economic area such as boycott, Boston tea party event, smuggling.
Finally, a series of incidents that took place during the resistance lead to
the American revolution.

To
conclude, migrating to a new world seemed a hopeful choice for many of these
people, as it did for English leaders who saw colonies as a way to solve the
problems of the growing numbers of displaced and poor people. In 1606 by the king order the
Virginia Company granted the right to establish colonies in Virginia. Britain
sends people with grate desire for wealth to the new world and wished that raw
materials and natural resources available in the colonies would help England
economy. Everything works fine at the beginning colonies wear growing so the
economy of the colonies. Economy growth create a wealthy class in colonies that
wished for more power to became as equal member of England elite class. The salutary
neglect was the opportunity for New England
wealthy class to change their role as an economic player to political leaders
of the colonies. That transition helped the colonies to grow more economically,
politically and gained
self-governed opportunity.
Later the same wealthy leaders helped the colonies to organized resistance
against the mother land new taxation laws which leads the colonist to
revolution. The beginning of this nation was seeking economic opportunity and
it was funded by economic company and wealthy merchants. The new nation leaders
mainly rooted in wealthy classes such as large landlord and merchants and the revolution
was started by protest and resistance against the new taxes. In every step of
growing of the new nation, economic plays important role and it is not
coincidence which the new nation became the world greatest economic power in
the world.