Narcissism a positive perspective in organizations in the

Narcissism is a broad
concept that identified either as a personality trait or a personality
disorder. In the organizational, institutional, political and military context,
it is mostly studied as a personality trait. Narcissism is a wide personality
context and people with narcissism tend to have exaggerative feelings of
self-importance, high need for limitless power, success, appreciation and absence
of empathy (Blair, Hoffman & Helland, 2008); also, they respond with anger
and aggression to the negative feedback and have over-confidence about their
abilities (Higgs, 2009). According to Barry et al. narcissism is seeing oneself
grandiose in comparison to others, also in the sight of others (2007).

To
measure narcissistic personality, Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) which
is developed by Raskin and Hall, is used and there are several versions of this
scale (1981). The 40-item forced-choice version
of Narcissistic Personality Inventory is
most commonly used by researchers (Twenge at al., 2008).  Moreover, it has
the highest internal reliability than others with 0.80, 0.82, and 0.83 alpha coefficients
(Rosario & White, 2005).

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             Narcissism is mostly
encountered in the organizations as a common situation among normal population
rather than a disorder (Gardner & Pierce, 2011). Narcissistic traits, such
as high need for power, success, appreciation and feeling of grandiosity motive
people to look for powerful positions so individuals with narcissistic traits
mostly found in leadership positions (Blair, Hoffman & Helland, 2008) Additionally,
narcissism is considered a drive to achieve a position of leadership (Kets de
Vries & Miller, 1985). Barry et al. mentioned that narcissistic individuals
have both adaptive properties such as authority and leadership, and have
adaptive properties such as arrogance (2007).  These qualities may seem in a positive
perspective in organizations in the short periods of time. However, in the long
term narcissistic individuals’ maladaptive features rise to the surface and
these individuals become perceived in a negative attitude (Campbell and
Campbell, 2009). Narcissistic individuals’ features influence their leadership
both in negative and positive ways; whereas positive ways are considered as
good side of narcissism, negative ways are considered as a dark side of
narcissism.

            Dark side of the narcissism, is the negative effects of
the narcissism and it mostly grows up in leaders. To have narcissistic traits
usually makes individuals inadequate and less effective leaders. According to a
study, narcissistic individuals tend to be ineffective leaders because they are
lacking integrity and narcissistic traits influence leader’s conceptual and
interpersonal abilities negatively so, these leaders are more likely to be
immoral (Blair, Hoffman & Helland, 2008). 
In another study, findings show that narcissistic leaders are more prone
to put the needs of themselves above needs of others (Grijalva et al., 2014),
so it can be inferred that they are selfish, and this trait may influence their
co-workers as well as the organization negatively. Their selfishness is usually
due to their lack of empathy, because according to Rosenthal and Pittinsky’ research,
narcissistic leader’s self-centered
and idiosyncratic world view, influence
their decisions (2006). Narcissistic leaders usually resort to manipulation in
order to make others think they are more proficient than actually they are, and
they underestimate their co-workers to feel themselves outstanding (Gardner
& Pierce, 2011). This belittlement may arise from their high need for
domination. Blair, Hoffman
& Helland’s study support this claim; in the study it is mentioned that narcissistic
leaders generally want to rule and beat others because according to them life
is a competition in which only one can win (2008). Moreover, in the
organizational success, they usually take this success on themselves and in
failure they usually accuse others for their inadequacies (Rosenthal &
Pittinsky, 2006). Their high need for success and appreciation, feeling of
grandiosity may lead them to take credits for organizational success. All these
dark traits, cause narcissistic leaders to develop bad relationships with their
co-workers, this situation may influence co-workers’ performance so, it makes narcissistic
leaders as insufficient leaders.