Name: the rising population, there is an increase

Name: Teo Wei Ywin

Matriculation No.: E0202166

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Module: CE1102

 

Week 1 Summary

 

Importance of Infrastructure
to Nations

 

Infrastructure enables trading, business, the
connection of workers to their jobs, creation of jobs, boost for developing
communities to occur. As the backbone of a healthy economy, it also protects
the country from the rapidly changing and increasingly volatile natural
environment.

 

The economy needs reliable infrastructure to
connect the suppliers and buyers, exporting goods and services across borders.

 

Context: Singapore

 

Problem:

With the continuous increase in our population,
how are we going to make a long-term plan to accommodate people with no loss in
the quality of life, while in the meanwhile, think of new MRT lines and new bus
routes.

 

Consideration:

Consequences of climate change such as flash
floods cannot be avoided due to land constraints, it is vital to build the
infrastructure to a certain level of capacity. It is also pivotal to consider
the possibility of prolonged drought.

 

As the climate has been changing rapidly, it is
essential for authorities to take the necessary actions to reduce the risk of
flooding in Singapore even without the conclusion from scientists.

 

While developing infrastructure to boost the
economy, countries must also take in concern of the people’s interests by carrying
out the infrastructure development via a responsible and sustainable way, such
as taking caution not to deteriorate the natural environments. There is an
immense potential for countries to collaborate to improve economic and social
issues. Sharing of different infrastructure construction techniques would help
to solve the common problems faced by many countries more efficiently.

 

My opinion: To cope with the rising population,
there is an increase construction in concrete infrastructure. However, that also
implied that lesser water can be absorbed into the ground, leading to more frequency
of flash floods. Therefore, it is important for authorities to plan ahead and increase
capacity of the infrastructure and facilities to meet the rising challenges.

 

Context: The United
States

 

Problem:

1.    
Increasing Urbanisation

Infrastructure in urban
areas must be able to not only serve numerous new customers, but also provide job
opportunities for the poorer, jobless residents.

a.    
Inadequate and ageing
infrastructure

b.    
Poor development plans
and growth

2.     Increasing Environmental Impact

a.    
Pollution from both
domestic and industrial waste

b.    
Urban sprawl

c.     
Catchment degradation

d.    
Traffic congestion

e.    
Air pollution

 

Consequences:

Although infrastructure increases economic
growth in a region as accessibility and its attractiveness boost, ill-planning
of infrastructure development can impede these development:

1.    
Inadequate
infrastructure maintenance results in an increase in costs to producers.

2.     Infrastructure affects the type of social structure developed for
a prolonged period.

3.     Infrastructure development and use have a prolonged impact on both
the urban and natural environments.

 

The roles of civil engineers are to minimise
cost, deliver quality service and build sustainable infrastructure that have
acceptable environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Hence, systems thinking and
holistic approach to projects are increasingly being valued.

 

Projects can promote sustainability through:

1.    
New and better systems
(Using clean energy, co-generation plants, water reclamation plant)

2.     Rehabilitation and expansion of existing systems (Replacement of
leaking water pipes, development of Newater distribution system)

3.     Restructuring existing systems (Deep Tunnel Sewage System, New
windows and insulation for buildings)

4.    
Better management of
existing systems (Road congestion pricing, building management system)

 

Background:

In the upcoming years, infrastructure such as
seaports, air hubs, freight rail, border crossings and track routes will grow
increasingly importance to move the increase in exports efficiently daily.

 

Infrastructure is also important in the era of
energy diversification, to cater to specific types of energy and their
different needs. For instance, natural gas needs new trucks, pipeline and rail
networks for transportation purposes, rooftop solar panels would require infrastructure
for energy storage and the development of electricity grids.

 

Natural disasters drew attention to water
infrastructure. The nation’s system is now being rebuilt to capture storm and
rain water rather than diverting them away.

 

A number of cities are using several market
mechanisms to finance new or existing transportation projects. Some techniques
include impact fees where land developers are assessed a charge to support
associated public infrastructure improvements. The lease or sale of air rights
is another practice used to finance development around transit stations for
decades. Some developments are around the Grand Central Station in New York,
and in Boston and Dallas. Another growing trend is the use of tax increment financing
districts.

 

The government also came up with the public-private
partnerships (PPP), a complex agreement that collaborates both the public
sector and private enterprises to share the risk and costs of design,
construction, maintenance, financing and operations.

 

However, even PPP is not a one-size-fits-all solution,
especially for green infrastructure or public parks that are not profitable
enough.