Message Board Posting for Endocrine system
Name of the Student: Isai Marines
1) Name of the Hormone: Testosterone
2) Source of the Hormone: Testosterone is produced by the gonads (by the Leydig cells in testes in men and by the ovaries in women), although small quantities are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. It is an androgen, meaning that it stimulates the development of male characteristics.
3) Endocrine or Exocrine: Testosterone being produced by the gonad (in men the testes and in women the ovaries) makes it an Exocrine.
4) Synergistic with Human Growth Hormone. Growth Hormone and Testosterone are synergistic on whole body protein anabolism and body composition in males, even at a young age, but the positive effects of Testosterone on protein anabolism and body composition appear to need a basal amount of GH for those effects to be observed.
5) Antagonistic with Estrogen. Testosterone is what makes a man and Estrogen is what makes a woman. Estrogen depletes muscle bulk and decelerates growth which is something contrary to what Testosterone does. Testosterone increases muscle mass on men and accelerates height and gives proper growth spurts as you are growing up.
6) Permissive effect can lead to aggression. If Testes were to be removed a significant amount of Testosterone hormone would be depleted and aggression would significantly diminish, but if a person would be administered or produce higher amounts of Testosterone aggression would increase as well. Women who would have higher hormone level of Testosterone on their blood system could develop Polycystic Ovary Syndrome which increases body acne, hirsutism, baldness at the front of the hairline, women would increase in muscle bulk, and her voice would deepen.
7) Feed Back Loop Mechanism – Positive vs. Negative: When the hypothalamus notices low levels of Testosterone in the body it releases the hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Then the gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates the pituitary gland so that it can release the Luteinizing hormone and the Follicle Stimulating hormones which stimulate the Leydig cells so that it can produce higher Testosterone in the body. As the Testosterone levels increase the hypothalamus decreases the gonadotropin-releasing hormone so that pituitary gland is no longer stimulated, therefore halting all production of Luteinizing and Follicle Stimulating hormone to prevent a greater increase of Testosterone in the body. This whole process is known as a negative loop feedback.
8) Lipid Soluble: Yes or No: Yes, Testosterone is a lipid. Testosterone is a derivative of cholesterol and therefore is a lipid. Steroids are part of a group of substances that mediate a varied set of biological responses and the most widespread in the body is cholesterol which is a very essential for cell membranes and the starting point for synthesis of steroids. As a lipid Testosterone is a chin of fatty molecules that is not water soluble and is soluble in non-polar solvents.
9) Hormone Receptors located? Gonads and the Adrenal glands.
10) Water Soluble: Testosterone is not water soluble.
11) Hormone Receptors located In target cells inside the cytoplasm of the nucleus.
12) Target Tissue / Organ: Target organs for Testosterone is the reproductive organs. It aids in strong bone density as well. It is what makes a male as they are growing. It also plays a part in secondary sexual characteristics like, increase muscle and body hair growth.
13) Organ System: Gonads and Adrenal gland in both male and female.
14) Function: Ovaries in women produce Testosterone for good bone strength, brain function, and development of muscle mass and strength. It contributes to well being and higher energy levels, and attributes to a woman’s libido and sex drive. For Men who produce greater amounts of Testosterone has the same benefits as women, with the exception that men with good Testosterone levels aid in the production of sperm.
15) Name of the Disease due to hyper secretion of this hormone: Hyperandrogenism
16) Treatment: Suppression for Ovaries in women with oral contraceptives. Since most of the effects of Hyperandrogenism are external, they are treated with cosmetic procedures. For example, for hirsutism patients are treated with electrolysis and laser photo thermolysis, such treatments are not considered permanent, and for acne patients use topical and systemic retinoids and antibiotics, topical antibacterial agents.
17) Name of the Disease due to hypo secretion of this hormone: Hypogonadism
18) Treatment: Treatment for Hypogonadism can be provided with Injections of testosterone with a doctor’s supervision. Patches that contain testosterone called Androderm is applied to the patient daily. Gel that can be applied to the upper arm or the arm pit is another option for treatment, and currently the most effective treatment that can last up to six months are Testosterone Pellets. These pellets are surgically implanted under the skin and are left inside as the body absorbs small amounts of Testosterone, therefore keeping normal levels up and steady.
19) Interesting Facts: Women in love at the start of their relationship have higher amounts of Testosterone in their system than single girls, males in love at the start of their relationship have lower levels of Testosterone than single men. Making money affects your Testosterone levels. Study showed that future money traders had a testosterone spike when they would make an above average profit. Testosterone abuse in both men and woman can cause acne, mood swings, hair loss from the head and growth of hair in body and face. Taking small doses of testosterone under the supervision of a doctor would decrease these overdose symptoms.