Joseph exam for the newly founded École Polytechnique,

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac was a French chemist and physicist. He Made amazing and interesting progress in Applied Chemistry. He was born on 6 December 1778 in Saint-Leonard-de-Noblat. He was the oldest of his brothers. His father name was Anthony Gay. His father was a lawyer who lost his position after French Revolution. His father sends him to boarding school in Paris. Later in 1809, he married Genevieve-Marie-Joseph-Rojot. He foremost met her when she used to work as a linen draper’s shop helper and was studying a chemistry textbook under the counter. He was famous for laws related to gases, known as Gay-Lussac’s law. It refers to those relationships with respect to the properties of gases. The first refers to the volume and the second refers to pressure and temperature. He received his earlier education from Abbey of Bourdeix. The French Revolution delayed his education as his private teacher ran away from the country of the political confusion. His father wanted him to become a lawyer but he was interested in science. His interest in Science and math help him to pass the entrance exam for the newly founded École Polytechnique, an institute where students expenses were paid by the state. After three years he transferred to École des Ponts et Chaussées.  In 1801 to become a chemist he stepped out from his school. He worked as a helper in the government chemical works at Arcueil. His first release was on the thermal expansion of the gas known as the Charles’ Law. He used dry gases and with nothing else mixed with mercury to get an accurate result. He decided that gases expand equally when heated from 0-100°C. In 1805 he discovered that there are two hydrogens and one oxygen in the water. His brave ascents hydrogen balloon with Jean-Baptiste Biot to explore the Earth’s magnetic field at high heights and to study the composition of the atmosphere. They reached 4,000 meters. When he did it individually he was able to reach 7,016 meters. He set the highest record that was not broken by anyone till half-century. In 1806 he was elected to institute de France. In 1807 an English chemist named Humphry Davy’s obtain the newly discovered reactive metals sodium and potassium by electrolysis. After hearing about it, he, Louis Jacques Thénard and Humphry Davy worked to produce even great quantities of metals and they obtained the new element boron. Also studied the effect of light on the reactions between hydrogen and chlorine. In 1809 he became a professor of chemistry at École Polytechnique. Since then, he started doing further research in chemistry. In 1815, he shows that prussic acid was simply hydrocyanic acid. He also isolated the compound cyanogen. He worked on the properties of the sulfates and sulfides, as well as other salts, which was an important part of what later known as volumetric analysis. He was the first person to identify that the CN combination was stable and when combined the chemical reaction was treated as a unit. He developed a better version of burette with a sidearm. In 1821 he was selected as a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science. In 1836, he was made a colleague by King Louis Phillip. His name is engraved on the Eiffel Tower in recognition of his contribution. In 1848 he retired to a country house with a private laboratory. Before he dies he asked his son to burn the treaties he had started working on. He died 9 May 1850 in Paris. After his death, a tribute was paid at the Academy of Sciences. He was an outstanding chemist