Hegel and studied. Throughout his philosophical working life,

Hegel was born in 1770, in
Stuttgart, a city in the south of Germany. He is known as a famous modern
professional philosopher. The influence of his ideas, his philosophy and his
works are still profound and studied. Throughout his philosophical working
life, the ideas of Freedom, Reason and Progress always inspired him. However,
at some points, his ideas are famously hard to be understood fully and rightly,
for example, the notion of “God” in his works. In Hegel’s thinking, which is
known as the matured thinking, the notion of “God” is the expression of the
rational truths. He also mentioned the notions of Reason or Mind as equal to
“God”. So, what does the notion of “God” really mean and why does Hegel choose
the notion of “God”. This paper will look deeply into his philosophy to
understand his idea of “God” and how the idea affects the freedom in history.

 

I.               
Literature review

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1.    
The
contradictory philosophies to Hegel

 

When Kant, (1724 – 1804)
demonstrated the moral theory, his argument against the ontological proof of
God. In his philosophy, he supported neither the existence nor non-existence of
God. According to him, the concept of God does not prove the existence of God.
The existence cannot be predicted, its actuality can be only a rational
philosophy presupposition. The existence can only be proved only if that Being
reveals itself. The Supreme Being’s existing is out of the intelligence of
human being and human reason. Whit their power of reason, they are not able to
the existence of the Providence. However, on the other side, it is also
important that they cannot prove God’s inexistence either (Petrescu, 2013). The presentation of the character which
come from the illusion of deist arguments does not give a sign giving up the
project of a religion based on Reason. The
presupposition of the existence of God is the initiating point and can
only be infer when the existence is already known in certain and granted. The
God in Kant is the as non-Absolute and the “Actual” belief, the faith
in God’s existence. For Kant, the
ultimate goal of the concept of God is the moral of human being. No one is
possible to rationally prove the existence of God however the moral life cannot
begin without God’s existence. It seems like the existence of Supreme Being is
essential and unconditioned. In addition, in the imperfect life of human
Beings, God is the perfect Being whom they can compare their knowledge and
behaviors with. And based on the comparison, individuals could create some
criteria for themselves to correct their actions and knowledge. However, human
being alone cannot be able to reach the Absolute Being through their owned
underwent knowledge: instead, the thing they can do to unreachable knowledge
and God is to presuppose the factuality of supreme phenomenon indicated as transcendental
object of something they cannot even explain what it is in itself. For Kant,
transcendental object is generated by consciousness so that the world is not a
simple world of representations without objective substratum. Inferring the
absolute essential existence from the imperfection of the contingent being is known
transcendental argument. According to the author, the principles of reason as
well as the idea of God are indeed because the possibility of systematic
knowledge of nature exists, only when we enable it.  For that reason, it causes the natural process
of human reason. Reason generates by chasing the idea of the existence of
essential being. In this being, the characteristic of unconditioned existence
is acknowledged. Then the existence is expandable to the notion of the
independence of all other things – in other words, in that which contains all reality.
“The unlimited all is an absolute unity, and is conceived by the mind as a
being one and supreme; and thus, reason concludes that the Supreme Being, as
the primal basis of all things, possesses an existence which is absolutely
necessary (Fackenheim, 1996).”

 

Even though working before Kant two years in corresponding work and
completely own in the method and style, Fichte’s work is based on the Kant’s
practical philosophy and is the further development of Kant’s work. In his
study, Fichte likes to concern ‘God’ as a being-in-himself, is a part of this
World. He might expose himself by interfering in the history of the world
without at specific times. It could be at the beginning of the world history or
constantly throughout the history. But this self-disclosure must be entirely related
with moral nature of human being. Unlike Kant, the God in Fichte is God’s absoluteness: God as
the moral Order of the World. God’s
for the purpose of morality. When Mankind or Humanity has drowned so deep that
the morality which is created from the pure reason has completely disappear
inside of human being and lost their power. It is a fact in this world and
possibly happens. Under the
circumstance that this is a fact and happens to the world of sense, as the
consequence