Grzesiak tolerance raring to estimate seed germination and

Grzesiak et al. (1996) conduct experiments for drought tolerance raring to estimate
seed germination and seedling growth in simulated drought as screening
techniques. Many screening tests were calculated for ability to assess drought tolerance
in 18 cultivars of legume plants (field bean, soybean, field pea, lupine).
Drought was simulated by a water solution of mannitol of chemical water potential
?= -0.3 and -0.6 MPa. Seed germination (final germination and promptness index)
and seedling growth parameters (seedling height, dry matter of shoot and root
as well as leaf injury by drought and high temperature) significantly affected when
treated by both solutions. Different vrieties clearly showed seed germination,
seedling growth and leaf injury affected by drought or heat temperature;
however, not all treatments appeared to be uniformly useful for screening of
legume species cultivars.

Phyllanthus
emblica seeds were soaked in distilled water, 250, 500 and
750 ppm GA3, 250, 500 and 750 ppm thiourea and control (no soaking
treatment) earlier to germination in Petri dishes was conducted a laboratory
experiment by Dhankhar et al. (1996). The highest germination
percentage (75.98% after 35 days, compared with 50.76% in controls) and maximum
shoot and root lengths (11.56 and 5.97 cm, respectively, 35 days after sowing)
were obtained in the 250 ppm GA3 treatment but the thiourea treatments resulted
in the most roots/seedling, the highest number (3.60, 35 days after sowing)
being obtained in the 750 ppm treatment.

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Loss of viability and
vigour is a common incidence in soybean was proposed by Shelar (2007). Several aspects contribute to failure of seed
quality. Physiological seed quality is associated to changes in cellular
metabolism. Changes related with seed deterioration are decline in food
reserve, amplified the activity of the enzyme and fat acidity and amplified the
permeability of membrane. The catabolic changes carry on with ageing of seeds;
the germinateing ability of the seeds is decreased.

Germinability and the soluble
carbohydrates content in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv.
Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario) was carried
out by Piotrowicz Cieslak et al., (2010). Seed aging depends
on species and moisture containet of seed. In storage condition, seed containet
highest moisture level was rapid decrease of germinability. The chief soluble
carbohydrates found in the seed are fructose, glucose, galactose, sucrose,
galactinol, raffinose. The acquired result on the contents of specific sugars
and the composition of soluble sugars fraction in seed of rye, wheat and
triticale did not support any reflective result of reducing sugars, sucrose and
oligosaccharides on seed long life.

Turgay Cakmak et al.,(2010) study was carried out to assess the result of
long-term natural aging on germination ability and some biochemical
characteristics concerning antioxidative reaction of both the dry seeds and the
during germination of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seeds stored for 42
years. The activities of catalase, peoroxidase and superoxide dismutase, lipid
peroxidation level, and content of phenolic matter and H2O2
were tested in dry seed and germinating seeds on 1st, 3rd
and 7th days of germination. Long-term aged seeds germinate 35%
which is vary low as comparison to non-aged seed (96%) and long-term aged seeds
caused an significant amplify in lipid peroxidation and phenolic matter as
comparison to non-aged seed. Long-term aged seeds confirmed low H2O2
content and the actions of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase.
However, during germination, the dissimilarities in biochemical parameters considered
were statistically non-significant in the aged seeds in contrast to their
controls.

Mohammadi
et al. (2011) showed
seedling growth decrease due to the result of seed deterioration. The invention
of three components viz. original seed weight, the part of seed reserves which
are mobilized and the alteration effectiveness of mobilized seed reserves to
seedling tissues are considered for heterotrophic seedling growth.  Seedling growth and the fraction of seed
reserve mobilization pointed out a significant decline with the progress of
deterioration. The outcome of seed deterioration on exchange effectiveness of
mobilized reserved to seedling tissues was non-significant. Improve seedling
germination and growth in plant breeding programs should focus on improvement
of fraction of mobilized seed reserved.

Jebasingh et al. (2014)
observed that seaweed liquid extract (SLE) of Laurencia pinnatifida, Surgassum
duplicatumand Caulerpa scalpelliformis on seed
germination and growth of the legume crop of Vigna mungo for
a short time study. Different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and
100 %; v/v) of SLE were used and growth parameters were observed. Seaweed
extracts were applied as a foliar soil drench and foliar spray to assess the
percentage of seed germination and effect on plant’s growth. All growth
parameters were found to be highest at the 10 % concentration SLE
treatment. The findings of the contemporary study showed that the low level of
SLE elevated the germination percentage and effective seedling growth viz.,
root length, shoot length and number of leaves. The study also reports the
presence of macro nutrients (sodium, potassium and sulphate) and crude protein
in seaweed extracts of L. pinnatifida, S. duplicatum and C.
scalpelliformis which make them an eco-friendly, proficient,
potential biofertilizer.