Fig52-1: This tiny frog is a paedophryne swiftorum discovered
in 2008; this might be the smallest vertebrates on Earth. Their food supply and
interactions with other species limit their distribution.
52-2: The study of life and the biosphere is
called Global ecology. Landscape ecology studies how a landscape is connected
ecosystems. Ecosystem ecology is the study of the relationship between
organisms and the environment (living and nonliving components). The study of
interactions between species is called Community Ecology. Population Ecology is
the study of population changes; research the factors affect a population. Organismal
Ecology is the study of individual organisms’ structure, physiology, and other
characteristics meet environmental challenges.
52-3: The intensity of sunlight depends on where
you are. The Earth is round shaped and tilted a little bit, so tropics
(Capricorn and Cancer) are the places where get more exposure to the Sun. And
then, the North Pole and the South Pole get the least sunlight in the world.
52-4: The seasons are created by the relationship
between the Sun and the tilted axis. In December, it is winter in the US because
we are away from the Sun, but it is summer in Australia because they are closer
to the Sun.
52-5: The Sun heats the water of the ocean and
the air, which creates the movements of water and air.
52-6: Cool air from the ocean flows into the
land, and gets warmed up. The warm air goes up the mountain and gets cooled
down. At the same time, the evaporated ocean water becomes rain at the
mountain, so it remains dry air and creates a desert on the other side of the
52-7: The two images are predictions of climate
change scenarios for American beech.
52-8: The colors show major terrestrial biomes.
52-9: A climograph is created based on annual average temperature and
precipitation of the location.
52-10: There are many similarities between a
cactus and a euphorbia because of convergent evolution. The main differences
are their sap and spines; cacti have clear and watery sap, euphorbs have white
and sticky sap.
52-11: Tropical Forest has two groups: tropical
rain forest and tropical dry forest. They are found near Earth’s equator or
subequatorial regions. Temperature does not change much between night and day. The
tropical forests have greater animal diversity than other terrestrial biomes. Temperatures
in desert are not stable; it changes seasonally and daily, the range is big.
Desert does not get much rain; always dry. Plants and animals have a variety of
adaptation for the environment. Distribution of Savanna is similar to tropical
forests, but the temperature has more seasonal variation. Rain in winter and
dry in summer at Chaparral. In Chaparral, there are small trees and a lot of
grasses and herbs, which means plant diversity is high. Wild horses and bison
are common in Temperate Grassland where dry winter and wet summer has. Northern
Coniferous Forest has many cone-bearing trees. Temperate Broadleaf Forest is
the area of warm summer and cold winter. Many birds like to migrate to tundra in
summer for nesting. Tundra is the coldest in all the biomes.
52-12: Marine zonation and Lake zonation are
similar; light penetration, distance from shore and water depth, and pelagic
zone or bottom.
52-13: Lake turnover is the oxygenated water movement in Spring and Autumn; the
oxygenated water on the top goes to the bottom, the water on the bottom goes to
the top. In winter and summer, O2 will be lower in deeper waters, and higher at
the top; no movement.
52-14: The map shows the locations of major aquatic
biomes; the aquatic biome is the largest biome on the Earth.
52-15: The saguaro is a kind of cactus that
tolerates freezing temperature only for a short time. Water and temperature are
important factors for them to grow.
52-16: The flowchart shows some factors limiting a species’ distribution such as
dispersal, behavior, biotic factors, and abiotic factors.
52-17: Dispersal is the movement of individuals or gametes away from their
original habitat. You can see the movement of the cattle egret in the US; the
cattle egrets are moving from the top of South America to southward and North America.
52-18: Removing urchins can increase seaweed
growth. But removing both urchins and limpets can make even greater increase of
52-19: DNA and proteins can get damaged by too much sunlight such as organisms
living at high elevations. An alpine climate is a climate above the tree line
of mountains; the temperature is low, windy, and moisture deficits; those
factors help the trees to survive and grow.