DNA for all the organisms but the differences

DNA or scientifically
known as the deoxyribonucleic acid is a hereditary substances that contain biological
material that helps in building and maintaining all the structures in an
organism. The chemical structure of DNA basically the same for all the
organisms but the differences exist in the arrangement of the DNA building
block which is the base pairs.  Every
organisms have their own unique sequences of base pair that determine their
species, populations or even their individuals. The base pair is particularly
repeating its patterns over and over again.

 

As for eDNA or also known
as the environmental DNA is define as the mitochondrial DNA that is been
release by an organism to its surrounding environment. The sources of the eDNA
comes from the organism mucous, feces, gametes, shed skin, hair or even their
sweat. The ways to detect the eDNA in the environment are in the form of
cellular or extracellular form.eDNA helps in the
detection of specific species using its established technologies. This eDNA study
offer opportunity in monitoring endangered species in the world as well as for
the biodiversity assestments surround us.  The objective of this
study are to; 1)      Protect
endangerd species around the world2)      Monitor
the biodiversity in soil, air and water

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3)      Applied
biosecurity among the endangerd speciesDNA is the main genetic
materials of all cellular. The development of biotechnology and molecular biology
make it possible for us to regulate or even control the plant traits, by using the
DNA sequence information within the organisms and it helps us to classified these
organisms based on their structure, function and mechanism. The scientist
recently have introduced a way which can help farmers to improve their agriculture
yiels and quality base on the DNA molecular markers which have been widely used
in agricultural production. Other than that, the DNA molecular merkers also
helps in reducing the loss that caused that caused by many foreign bacteria or
virus. Moreover, the methods that been introduced by the scientist have been
used and the results are highly recommended to use by all the farmers which it
can improve the breeding efficiency of the plant and also strengthening the
regulation of plant growth. These modern DNA technologies are important as it
help measures to guarantee the sustainable development of agricultural plants.
Despite the agriculture include the plant and animal production, DNA
technologies in these fields use the same technical objective and type.
Therefore, in this eDNA study in agriculture science, we will review the
agricultural applications of DNA technologies by introducing the use of DNA
technologies in plant production. Many reports have been
wrote about the various application of DNA technologies that was used in
agricultural production and the DNA technologies have been constantly maintained
and updated. It will be very difficult for thee scientist to introduce every
DNA technique since it will be renew and updated every time based on the
agricultural statistics. Therefore, this study will introduce the agricultural
applications of DNA molecular marker and also the transgenic technology in this
study that scientist have used in order to improve the agriculture aspects. Various
DNA markers were developed and was used in agriculture research, such as DNA
random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP),
amplified fragment length polymorphism, (AFLP) and sequence-related amplified
polymorphism (SRAP). The technologies can be compared with the traditional
morphological markers, cytological markers, and biochemistry markers that was
used by people around 1000 years behind us and it can be proved that DNA
markers which have been recently introduced have much more information can helps
in working without the influence of plant organs or the developmental stages. Many
types of environmental factors that have been widely used before in
identification of crop varieties, conservation of plant germplasm resource,
analysis of genetic adversity and evolution, construction of genetic maps,
cloning of important trait genes, and molecular mark assisted breeding can no
longer be used since the existence of this technology because this technology
make things easier for the scientist.   In order to better apply
the DNA markers for identification of cultivar, the DNA fingerprint will be
convert to the available and convenient information. Since the practical is
very crucial, it can be directly used in the identification of cultivar but the
available technique which is available is lack and it will make it very
difficult in conversion of the DNA marker fingerprint to easy access
information, that can lead to the research findings on cultivar identification.
Before this, this kind of techniques were barely used in the agriculture
production around the world. The DNA marker identification in the former study
gives in results which mainly analyzed by electrophoresis band database, binary
table and cluster analysis, but all of those type of information were too
abstract. Besides, it was hard and difficult to used it in the ordinary
cultivar identification practice in daily agriculture production. With this
kind of development and application of the manual cultivar identification
diagram (MCID) that have been introduced recently, the identification of
cultivar by DNA marker has obtained the exact objective to serve for the
agriculture directly. In MCID, the information of DNA marker primer and the
polymorphic bands were marked to the identification of cultivar diagram (CID)
through artificial drawing, by which the identification of cultivar results was
used or be the reference in the identification of cultivar practice. RAPD
molecular marker was used to the  identify the cultivar of many fruits such as grapevine,
pomegranate, loose-skin mandarin and lemon. The CID have provide many useful and
independent information of primer and polymorphic bands. It soon can be used in
identification of the the cultivar of grape and pomegranate. The DNA marker and
the MCID have combine to make it possible to exert the advantages of DNA marker
suffiecienly in identification of cultivar. It is undeniable facts
that plants are more difficult to work with than bacteria, so the scientist have
insert the gene that can be made into single plant cells. Then the cells can be
cultivated to form a mature plant. This type of major method was used through
the plasmids of the bacterium called Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This bacterium helps
to invades plant cells and its plasmids also helps for tumor induction. The
tumor-inducing genes was removed out and a plasmid that unites with the plant
cell was obtained without causing any harm. The rot-resistant tomato
was the first product formed by using the biotechnology. A gene was added which
will produce an ansense molecule and the scientist used this method to altered
this plant. The antisense molecule inhibits the tomato from producing the
enzyme that encourages rotting. The tomato can ripen longer on the vine without
this type of enzyme and can be used for many times. There are many part of
DNA study in agriculture. One of the part is application of recombinant DNA
technology in agriculture. These part are divided to three field. There are
transgenic plants with resistance to herbicide. In this field,gene for
herbicide resistance is inserted into a crop plant’s chromosomal DNA.
Herbicides will have no effect on the crop plants and will only destroy the
weeds.For example,transgenic soybean which is resistant to herbicides (Roundup
Ready Soybean). Secondly, transgenic plants with resistance to pests. In this
field,bacterial gene coding for a type of toxin which may kill insects is
inserted into crop plants. The toxin is more effective than pesticides and it
gives the plant a permanent resistance to pests. Thirdly, transgenic salmon. In
this field,it involve genetically modified Atlantic Salmon. These genes enable
the transgenic salmon not to reproduce only during spring and summer but by
applying this study, the transgenic salmon can grow throughout the whole year.
They also adapt rapidly to a new environment,survive twice as long as wild-type
salmon, feed more efficiently than wild-type salmon and show accelerated growth
rate. Environmental DNA (eDNA)
can be found from many kind of environment such as  soil, sediment, water, without any obvious
signs of biological source material, it is effective and also easy to be
standardize by sampling approach. When it involve biodiversity, environmental
DNA can be use  to monitor it.
Consequently, eDNA has been used to applied within the areas ranging from
molecular biology, ecology, palaeontology and environmental sciences. The
nature of DNA from macro-organisms obtained from the environmental samples is
different from targeting microbial organisms, as the former is present only as
parts of the organism, whereas the latter may be detected by DNA deriving from
whole, living organisms present in the samples. 

      Environmental DNA metabarcoding helps in surveying
the animal and plant richness that was reviewed, and by using eDNA approaches,
it will be challenging to estimate relative abundance. It was highlighted that
eDNA applications in terrestrial environments help scientist to distill  the ability of different eDNA sample which can
provide many information about the plant species.There are many reasons
why we need to have eDNA study in agriculture science, which are; ·        
Enable identification of any threats
towards the plant. With this study, the scientists can identify the disease and
try to find the cure. We can avoid the threats from spreading to other plants
in other regions.  ·        
Besides, eDNA techniques have been used to
increase the potential in the field of conservation biology surround the world
including for agriculture science. Improvement in the agriculture yield can be
done so that land erosion can be prevented and also keeping the ground cover on
the soil.  ·        
Thirdly, eDNA study can help in detecting the locations of threatened species
across all the environments around the world. eDNA is especially useful
for studying species within specific populations and it is very excellent in
confirming the existence of plant species which can be known by having only the
soil sample. 

·        
Other than
that, scientists also can find many rare species in plants by eDNA study.
Throughout a day, there are many new species that have to be discovered and by
applying this eDNA study, it will help the scientist to classified the new
species according to their own taxonomic.1)      William,
Wesley (2014). “Environmental DNA From Biodiversity”. 15: 12–15 2)      Kidley,
David M. (2009-03-23). “Diverse Plant Records from Sediments”. Ecology.
211: 196-200  3)      Philip
Merier; Evke (2014-05-09). ” Environmental DNA: A new tool to conserve
biology. 189: 1–9 4)      Anderson,
Evke (2010-03-06). “eDNA of Meta-Barcoding from soil reflects plant biodiversity”.
Molecular Ecology. 21 (8): 1966–1979  

5)      Danis
Wellington; Clinton (2013). “Detection of species by using the environmental
DNA obtained from soil samples”. Biological Study. 6 (6): 329-333