Cassidy KeeneJanuary 23rd, 2018History Since 1877 Sec 003Chapter 18 Outline; Victorians Make the ModernCommerce and CultureThomas Edison, a very famous and successful businessman, invented the incandescent light bulb and the photograph, which both became heavily and widely used in American homes.Consumer culture appeared to be democratic, but later on revealed to be struggling with issues such as battles over class disparity, racial benefits, and appropriate male and female conduct. Consumer SpacesP.T Barnum victoriously advocated for commercial domesticity with his well known traveling circus, while simultaneously utilizing children as his main audience. Retail establishments lured in middle-class women by offering play areas for children, tearooms, umbrellas, and clerks to carry and wrap purchases. New York’s department store district was known as Ladies’ Mile, and eventually William Filene started calling it the “Adamless Eden.”In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone, used for business purposes but also residential needs. The emergence of privileges for professional families was well reflected by railroads. First class “ladies’ cars” became sites of racial equality very quickly.Plessy v Ferguson (1896) made accommodations that were “separate but equal” until Brown v Board in 1954, which declared that separate public schools for whites and blacks was unconstitutional.b) Masculinity and the Rise of SportsAthletics became the way to prove yourself physically. The men wanted their toughness and strength to evolve, along with other physical qualities as well. i) “Muscular Christianity”The Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), was a very successful promoter of athletic fitness. The facility opened in Boston in 1851, and the group combined Christianity with gyms. The “Y” eventually became a venue where middle-class and working-class blended together. Country clubs blossomed for elite Americans, and more aggressive physical sports emerged for men (weightlifting, boxing, etc.)During Roosevelt’s presidency (1901-1909), he urged the male species to pursue the “strenuous life”. ii) America’s GamePrior to the 1860’s, the only apparent American game was Native American lacrosse. After the Civil War, however, baseball’s popularity spread like wildfire in New York. Baseball set a model for the development of other sports. Later on, Americans decided that the sport would be beneficial to the working class.The National League was launched in 1876, and they built more than a dozen teams in large cities, such as Cleveland and Brooklyn. iii) Rise of the Negro Leagues Racial negotiation and conflict were heavily present within the world of baseball. Threats were being made and African American players were targeted, saying that they would be lynched if the coaches let them play. By the 1900s, teams organized into separate Negro Leagues, and they celebrated black manhood and talent. c) The Great Outdoors In 1890, US manufacturers sold ten million bikes as the craze swept the country. While the Victorian Era started to decline, women donned lighter dresses and pursued archery and golf. Americans searched for unexplored land, and the first environmental movement arose. John Muir became the spokesperson for the wilderness, and he founded the Sierra Club in 1892.The Lacey Act (1900) established laws that prohibited trade in fish, wildlife, and plants. To set aside “objects of historic and scientific interest”, Roosevelt broadened preservation under the Antiquities Act (1906).