Cancer from cancer cells Tumor marker seen in

     Cancer
is abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts
of the body, Biomarker are
Measured and evaluated as indicator of normal biological process, pathogenic
process, or pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention, Characteristic
of Ideal biomarker expression should significantly increase in disease
condition  Readily quantifiable in
clinical sample It should be economically viable Tumor marker is a Biochemical
substances produced by cancer cell or by the healthy cell It’s a Substances  found at higher level than normal level  in cancerous condition, which differentiate
the normal cell from cancer cells  Tumor
marker seen in Blood circulation, Body
cavity fluids  Cell membrane ,Cell
cytoplasm Tumor marker  classification
Tumor Specific Antigens  Specific
for single individual tumor, present only in tumor cells Ex:CEA,CA19-9,CA125
Tumor-Associated Antigens are Found with different tumor of same tissue
type Present on tumor cells and some normal cells Expressed at abnormal
concentration when presence of cancer Ex: Prostate specific antigen, Beta HCG,AFP
L3,thryglobin ,Enzyme 1st group identified as a biomarker  Hormone used to detect and monitor the
cancer Onco-fetal protein AFP,CEA,PSA, using anti-sera against cancer tissue cell
surface antigen are CA 125,CA15-3,CA19-9 Blood group Ag using monoclonal
antibody detect cancer cell according to site tumor marker classification as Biochemical
/serological marker-detected in blood or body fluids, histochemical/ tissue
marker- in tissue by immunological test diagnostic marker, prognostic marker/
predictive marker, therapeutic marker clinical use Screening, diagnosis, prognostic predictor  clinical
staging of the cancerous condition
for monitoring during treatment early
detection for recurrence CHARACTERISTICS OF AN IDEAL TUMOUR MARKER Should
not be very costly,sensitivity,specificity, accuracy, precision, simple to use CEA -Lung, breast, Colorectal cancer, alfa
feto protein used as marker for Hepato
cellular carcinoma, Germ cell
tumor, HCG – Germinal  cell tumor of  testis, Ovarian adenocarcinoma, Hepatoma, chorio
carcinoma, CA 125- Ovarian carcinoma, calcitonin for Medullary thyroid
cancer, CA15-3/ CA27.29 used as tumor marker for  Breast cancer,
Liver, colon, ovarian endometrial cancer, Prostate specific antigen ia marker
for Prostate cancer, Thyroglobulin-Thyroid cancer, 21-Gene signature(oncotype-Dx),70-Gene signature(mammaprint),Estrogen
receptor/ progesterone receptor- breast, Cytokeratin  fragments21-1- Non small cell Lung
cancer,breast cancer, Insulin-Insulinoma(beta cell tumor),Cortisol/ACTH- Equine pars intermedia adenoma, adreno cortical tumor, Sex steroid
hormone- Adeno carcinoma, Methods
of detection of tumor marker are immunological Immuno histochemistry, Radioimmuno
assay,ELISA, Cytogenetic analysis
– Fluorescent insitu hybridization,Spectral karyotyping,Comparative genomic
hybridization, Genetic analysis,proteomics- Surface  enhanced laser desorption/ionization,
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY- By linking the
antibodies to a dye, The immunoreactivity
between the tissue specimens and antibodies can be visualized with the light
microscope, commonly used to characterize tumors of epithelial origin are
antibodies directed against the cytokeratin intermediate
filaments,Epithelium-Specific cytokeratins used as diagnostic markers that
detect change in cytokeratin expression as a consequence,Cytokeratin 6 is
present in all epithelial skin tumors Cytokeratin immunostaining – used to
detect micro-metastases in lymph nodes of dogs with mammary gland carcinoma,
Mesenchyme tumor markers are Vimentin-Non-muscle
Sarcomas,rhabdomyosarcomas.Desmin-canine
leiomyomas, Leiomyosarcomas,Canine hemangiopericytoma.Fibrillary Acid Protein- glioblastoma,Proliferation marker are Ki-67- prognostic significance in canine mammary gland tumors, soft tissue
sarcomas  and melanoma, During
interphase  the ki-67 antigen
detected  with in the cell nucleus.
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen- estimate tumor
proliferation rate. CYTOGENETICS structural and numerical abnormalities of
chromosomes G-banded chromosomes,other cytogenetic banding techniques,
molecular cytogenetics: fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH),comparative
genomic hybridization (CGH),proteomics,genomics,metabolomics- fucosylated
proteins, including CD44 and E-selectin-elevated in dogs with lymphoma With the
completion of the sequencing of the canine genome, a microarray is being
developed to study the changes in tumor gene expression in canine
tumors.Methods of discovery:genomic approach:Northern blot-RNA sequencing,Gene
expression technique,DNA micro array.Protomic approach:Tissue micro array,Antibody
array,2D PAGE. Metabolomic approach: 
Analysing metabolic response to drug or disease.Lipidomic approach:analysis
of lipids.