is one of the key factors that contribute to Ischemic Heart Disease. It is the
hardening and narrowing of the inner arterial walls of the arteries, which
hinders the flow of blood to the body.
According to Beckerman, J (2016), arteries are lined by
endothelium, which is a thin layer of cells that acts as a barrier among the lumen and the encompassing tissues that control the motion of white blood cells, inside and outside of the bloodstream. Atherosclerosis develops
with the harm executed to the endothelium. this is because of excessive blood pressure, smoking, or high cholesterol. This leads
to plague formation within the arteries.
When bad cholesterol – also called ‘Low-Density
Lipoprotein’ (LDL), encounters the endothelium that is damaged,
the cholesterol will enter the walls of the arteries. Subsequently, plague
forms and grows as atherosclerosis advances, narrowing the passage of blood
flow (Beckerman, 2016). While the plague is huge enough, it may create a
blockage, now not allowing the blood to flow at some stage in the body. This
may not only endanger the coronary heart attack, and other health issues (Beckerman,
Signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis do not
commonly display till middle age or older. However, because the passage of
blood flow continues to seriously narrow, it could hinder blood flow and cause
pain. It is also viable for the plague to suddenly rupture, and cause the blood
to clot on the site of the rupture in an artery (Beckerman, 2016).
In ischemic heart disease, the plagues inside the arteries
of the heart cause angina (chest ache). An unexpected rupture of the plague and
clotting of the blood, cause heart muscle to die, this is called a heart
Atherosclerosis can get worse over time; however, it is
preventable. Once there is a blockage, it will commonly stay for life. However,
plagues could stop or slow their growth. With vigorous treatment, they might
even reduce a little. Lessening the threating components will slow or even stop
the process. This means that there is a need of change in a way of life (Beckerman, 2016). This includes a healthy diet, exercise, and no
smoking. These changes will not eliminate the blockages, but they have
demonstrated to decrease the risks of heart attacks.
Taking medication for high cholesterol and excessive blood
pressure will slow and could even halt atherosclerosis (Beckerman, 2016). This
is additionally one of the approaches that decrease the risks of heart attacks.
Other than medication, medical doctors could use invasive strategies to go
around or open the blockages from atherosclerosis.
One method will be the angiography and stenting. A thin tube
will be inserted into an artery within the arm or the leg, permitting the
doctors to get to the affected arteries and see the blockages via an X-ray
display screen. Blocked arteries can frequently be opened through angioplasty –
catheters with balloon tips and stenting (Beckerman, 2016). Stenting
helps to reduce the signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis, but it cannot
prevent future heart attacks (Beckerman, 2016).
Another technique is – bypass surgery. Surgeons will take a
healthy blood vessel, often from the leg or chest. They will use the healthy
blood vessel to replace those which are damaged (Beckerman, 2016). This
method may have complications along with – kidney failure and stroke (Beckerman,
2016). Therefore, it is only carried out whilst the blockage is too critical to
be managed with medication or other treatments.