“Affirmative of the use of Affirmative Action.Secondly, Affirmative

“Affirmative Action is the most modern anti-discrimination technique ever instituted in the United States… It certainly has done something, or else’s it wouldn’t have provoked so much opposition.”-Eleanor Holmes Norton. According to the Merrimack-Webster dictionary, the meaning of Affirmative Action is, “an active effort to improve the employment or educational opportunities of member of minority groups and women… a similar effort to promote the rights and progress of other disadvantaged persons”(Merriam Webster). The use of Affirmative Action in college admissions and the workplace should be allowed. It should be allowed because many judiciaries have approved it, it helps create and maintain diversity both in schools and at work, and it helps boost minorities that really need Affirmative Action.Firstly, Affirmative Action is supported in our legal system because many judiciaries and courts have approved the use of it in college admissions. One way that it is supported is through executive orders written by former presidents. Executive Order 10925 written in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy states that employers should us Affirmative Action to ensure employees are treated well. Furthermore, Executive Order 11246 written by President Lyndon B. Johnson (1965) requires contractors to use Affirmative Action to ensure equality in the workplace.(S#10) This shows that multiple Presidents of the United States have approved of the use of Affirmative Action. In like manner, there have been multiple Supreme Court Cases in which the justices vote for the use of Affirmative Action. Abigail N. Fisher, a white female, applied to the University of Texas in 2008. She was competing with many other state applicants. The university denied the application. Fisher filed a lawsuit claiming that The University of Texas used race as a factor in her admission. She says that using race violated the 14th Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause. In a 5-4 vote. The Supreme Court ruled that under circumstances, race could be a factor in the admissions process. Another case was Allan Bakke v. Regents of the University of California. Bakke applied to the University’s medical school, but was denied even though he was in the top 5% of his class. The University had reserved 100 admissions for minorities. Bakke’s test scores exceeded those of the minorities, but he was still denied. He filed a suit saying that the University excluded him from admissions only because of race. Just like the other case, this case ended in a 5-4 vote for the use of Affirmative Action in the admissions process.(S#8/S#1) These two landmark cases were significant proof that even Supreme Court Justices approve of the use of Affirmative Action.Secondly, Affirmative Action is a tool used to create and ensure diversity on college campuses. In a both of the cases mentioned before, judges agreed that colleges using race as a factor for a portion of the admissions as one of the four academic freedoms. Most judges and lawyers would consider academic freedom part of the First Amendment to the Constitution. A survey conducted by the University of Warwick says that approximately 78% of the people surveyed voted for academic freedom being part of the First Amendment. (Warwick) This is proof that over 75% of Americans believe that academic freedom is considered a right. Furthermore, it shows that academic diversity is legitimated by the First Amendment. Additionally, even most Fortune 500 companies agree that diversity is great for business. These companies agree that diversity is good for business because it fosters competitiveness and innovation. For the first time in 12 years, several Fortune 500 companies including Apple and Microsoft are asking the Supreme Court to preserve the university’s rights to use Affirmative Action. According to a briefing for a list of corporations, companies have found through experience that a workforce trained in a diverse environment is critical to their business success. (S#4) This is evidence that Fortune 500 companies support the use of Affirmative Action, and it is necessary for their success. Thirdly, minorities lag behind white men in various fields. Therefore, Affirmative Action is necessary to help boost these minorities. According to the Pew Research Center, “the median income for a household headed by blacks is $43,300, and for whites it is $71,300. Blacks also lag behind white in college completion, but amongst bachelors degrees, blacks earn significantly less than white do”(Pew). A study by the US Census Bureau concludes that, “blacks are consistently lower in graduation in college than whites”(Census Bureau). This proves that blacks are a minority, and they require Affirmative Action to boost them. Of  equal importance, Hispanic Americans also require Affirmative Action to help them in college. A study by the Pew Research Center concluded that, “a college degree is the key to financial well-being.” Furthermore it states that, “approximately 36% of White men have a bachelor’s degrees, and about 15% of Hispanics hold a bachelor’s degree.” Hispanics also lag behind in High School completion and household income.(Pew) These statistics are solid evidence that without the use of Affirmative Action most if not all Hispanics won’t be able to close the large college completion gap at all.On the contrary, those who oppose Affirmative Action would argue that it may have been required during the Civil Rights Era, but it is no longer necessary today.(S#3) It is a fair argument, but it is not true. The US Department of Education’s Civil Rights Office wrote a comprehensive report concerning racial inequality in schools. According to that report, “Black students are four times as likely… and Latino students are twice as likely to attend schools where one out of every 5 teachers does not meet all state teaching requirements… As early as preschool, Black students face harsher discipline than white students (which takes kids away from valuable in-class learning time).”  This shows that Affirmative Action is still necessary to help boost these groups of people.(Kos Media)