Abstract their physical identity into line with their

Abstract

            The human being is a wonderful creation in world, and the identifying individual are male and female that is Trans- man or Trans- woman that is called Transgender or Trans. It means someone whose gender differs from the one they were given when they born. Transgender community may identify as male or female or they may feel that neither label fits them. Transgender people are who experience a mismatch between their gender identity or gender expression and their assigned sex. Transgender communityLesbian,Gay,Transgender facing many problem their day to day life, because they did educated, so they did not get any job in the society and they did not get the  respect to their life. Education is fundamental need for every person in the world, but transgender community facing problem in school life itself, because of their dress, speech, bathroom facilities etc. so they unable to continue their study from their school life itself and they unable  to go college. Finally they didn’t get the job from the society.

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Keywords: Transgender, Equality Gender, Education, Society.

 

 

 

Introduction

Transgender is a general term applied to a variety of human being, behaviors and group involving tendency that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man)commonly, but not always, assigned at birth, as well as the role traditionally held by society. Transgender is the state of one’s “gender identity” (Self-identification as male, female, both or neither) not matching one’s assigned gender (identification by others as male or female based on physical/genetic sex) Transgender does not imply any specific form of sexual orientation, they may identify as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, pansexual or asexual. The precise definition for transgender remains in flux, but include, of relating to or designating a person whose identity does not conform unambiguously to conventional notions of male or female gender, but combines or moves between these. A transgender individual may have characteristics that are normally associated with a particular gender, identify elsewhere on the traditional gender continuum, or exist outside of it as “other”, “a-gender”, “inter-gender” or third gender.

Transsexual people have deep conviction that the gender to which they were assigned at birth on the basis of their physical anatomy or birth gender is incorrect. That conviction often compels them to undergo hormonal or surgical treatment to bring their physical identity into line with their preferred acquired gender identity. Transsexuals’ is not the same as cross-dressing for sexual thrill, psychological comfort or compulsion. It is not the same as being sexually attracted towards people of the same sex. Many transsexual people wish to keep their condition private, and this must be respected and they should be treated as members of their acquired gender.

Transgender

            The contemporary term “transgender” arose in the mid-1990s from the grassroots community of gender-different people. Unlike the term “transsexual,” it is not a medical or psychiatric diagnosis. In modern usage, transgender has become an “umbrella” term that is used to describe a wide range of identities and experiences, including but not limited to pre-operative, post-operative, and non-operative transsexual people male and female cross-dressers involved individuals and men and women, regardless of sexual orientation, whose appearance or characteristics are perceived to be gender uncharacteristic. In its broadest sense, transgender encompasses anyone whose identity or behavior falls exterior of stereotypical gender norms. That includes public who do not self-identify as transgender, but who are perceived as such by others and thus are subject to the same social oppressions and physical cruelty as those who actually identify with any of these categories. Other current synonyms for transgender include “gender variant,” “gender different,” and “gender non-conforming.

            Historically, people who have feminine bodies but who live their lives as men have received less attention than their male-bodied counterparts. The world is much more well-known with stories of male-to-female gender crossing. Nonetheless, there are many women throughout history who have conform to this definition of transgender, as well as many. The 21st century begins to unfold, the term “transgender” encompasses a much broader spectrum of experience. Many transsexual people have been willing to take on the label of transgender because it describes their experience before their change of sex, or in some way helps to describe their ongoing consciousness once they In its broadest sense, transgender encompasses anyone whose identity or behavior falls outside of stereotypical gender norms have changed their sex, implying the broader social awareness they may have as a result of experiencing life from within two kinds of (perceived) bodies, though their gender identity may always have remained the same. Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) community are taking on the transgender label because their gender presentation crosses arbitrary boundaries that they want to render less constraining, or because they recognize that loving a person of the same sex is in itself a challenge to dominant gender norms.

Transgender Issues in Education

          Transgender people have many troubles their day to day life. But in this article focus about their education issues. The experiences of transgender students and how student affairs professionals may effectively address these students’ needs in areas of campus life where transgender students have unique concerns: programming, housing, bathrooms and locker rooms, counseling and health care, and records and documents. Although a growing number of colleges and universities are beginning to consider the needs of transgender students, most institutions still offer little or no support to this segment of the campus community (Transgender Law and Policy Institute, 2005). If student affairs professionals are committed to working with all students and helping foster their personal development and academic success, then they cannot ignore transgender students. As this chapter demonstrates, transgender students regularly encounter institutional discrimination in higher education, which makes it particularly important that student affairs professionals understand their experiences and the obstacles they confront at most colleges and universities.

Transgender Students

Transgender students may be of any age, ethnicity, race, class, or sexual orientation. Some enter higher education open about being transgender, while others come out during college or graduate school. Still others may never use the term transgender, but will strongly identify themselves as male, female, transsexual, or another (or no) gender. Some students may choose to transition; that is, to live as a gender different from the one assigned to them at birth. Transitioning is a complex, individual process that often includes changing one’s name, appearance, and body (Lombardi and Davis, forthcoming). Identity development is a dynamic process for many transgender college students (Bilodeau, 2005). Consider the following composite portraits that represent but a fraction of the diverse identities of and challenges faced by transgender students.

Transgender students confront a number of challenges within campus environments, including a lack of access to health care and difficulties with sex-segregated facilities     (Beemyn, 2003; Nakamura, 1998). Especially to transgender students who self-identify as heterosexual (Beemyn, 2003). As a result, transgender students are forming their own groups at some colleges and universities, particularly where there are a large number of openly transgender students and a more supportive campus climate. In the absence of a transgender student organization, a campus LGBT office or counseling center can work with students to create a transgender support group (Beemyn, 2003; Lees, 1998). Inclusive Policies Campus nondiscrimination policies include the categories of “sex” and sometimes “sexual orientation,” but neither category necessarily covers transgender people, who face discrimination based on their gender identity and expression rather than their biological gender or sexual identity (Beemyn, 2003). To protect the rights of transgender people, more than twenty colleges and college systems have added protection of “gender identity or expression” to their nondiscrimination policies. A number of institutions are also changing policies and practices that exclude or marginalize transgender students by conceptualizing gender as male and female, such as college forms that allow students to identify only as male or female.

 

 

Campus Housing

Housing policies and practices that assume that students are male or female fail to serve transgender students, especially those who are in the process of transitioning from one gender to another or who do not identify as either dominant gender. If college administrators are to continue to meet the changing needs of students, they must develop procedures that recognize diverse gender identities and expressions. This professional obligation is also a legal requirement at institutions where state or municipal laws or college policies ban discrimination against people

because of their gender identity or expression. Given the diversity of individual student needs and the immense diversity of housing facilities and programs, the housing needs of transgender students must be addressed on a case-by-case basis. However, a formal written policy can guide institutional practice and provide a foundation for ensuring the fair, safe, and legal treatment of transgender students.

In order to identify and assist transgender students, some colleges and universities are changing the sex designation on their housing intake forms(Transgender Law and Policy Institute, 2005). Asking if someone is male or female not only fails to recognize the full complexity of gender identity, but also provides insufficient information for roommate assignments.  Regardless of how transgender students notify the institution of their gender identities, residence-life staff should follow up with students who want to live on campus to understand their specific needs better. In such instances, the personal information shared by the students should be kept confidential, and only information required to establish the need for a particular accommodation should be requested. Some transgender students prefer not to reveal the status of their physical body, which may not be congruent with their gender identity or expression. Colleges and universities should thus allow students to demonstrate the need for a particular housing option by providing a letter from a medical professional. Residence-life staff who demonstrate their sensitivity to and understanding of transgender experiences create a welcoming environment for students to explore their housing needs and options more honestly and effectively.

Many transgender students prefer private restrooms and shower facilities for safety reasons. In residence halls that do not have a bathroom in each room, residence-life staff should note whether the buildings have any gender-neutral restrooms and whether any of the shower facilities have lockable stalls, rather than just shower curtains. They should also examine cost differences between residence halls to determine whether transgender students are forced to incur a greater financial burden in order to live in a safer environment. Another important consideration is which buildings or floors include theme housing, and whether transgender students would likely gain acceptance and feel a part of these communities. Even an LGBT and Allies theme hall may not be a comfortable environment for transgender students if they identify as heterosexual or are not open about their gender identity. A campus housing assessment should also examine the demographics of the residents of each building. Returning students who have already lived on campus may be more accepting of gender difference, and thus a largely upper-class-student residence hall might be a safer location for transgender students.

Housing staff should also seek to reach prospective students through sharing the information with student affairs colleagues, particularly the staffs in admissions, orientation, and student activities. Returning students might be reached through outreach to campus groups or offices that provide support to LGBT students. Student affairs professionals should recognize transgender students needs, just as they would try to understand and address the concerns of members of other underrepresented communities. By acknowledging and accommodating the specific housing needs of transgender students and fostering a residential environment where all forms of diversity are celebrated and appreciated, residence-life staff can help transgender student’s benefit both academically and socially from living on campus.

Bathrooms and Locker Rooms

 Whether through cross-dressing, transitioning from one gender to another, or blending traditionally female and male elements, transgender students violate society’s expectation that someone is either female or male, which makes them vulnerable to harassment and violence. Some of the most dangerous places on many campuses for transgender students are restrooms and locker rooms designated for “women” and “men.”That transgender people often face verbal and physical assault and risk being questioned or even arrested by the police when they use gender-specific facilities (Coalition for Queer Action, 2001; San Francisco Human Rights Commission, 2001).Given these dangers, it is not surprising that using bathrooms and locker rooms presents a major source of anxiety for many transgender students. To make locker rooms safe for transgender students, colleges and universities can create individual showers with curtains or private changing rooms. Although these changes require more extensive renovations than converting men’s and women’s restrooms into gender-neutral bathrooms, institutions should have facilities that are accessible to all members of the campus community. Moreover, private changing rooms benefit not only transgender people, but also families with children (such as mothers bringing sons or fathers bringing daughters to a facility) and people with disabilities who require the assistance of an attendant of a different gender.

Counseling

            Culturally appropriate counseling can provide a safe, nonjudgmental place for students to explore their developing identities and address college-related challenges (Gould, 2004). While sharing many of the same developmental concerns as their peers, transgender students may also face culturally specific issues related to their gender-identity development, including coming out to themselves and to family and friends, negotiating gendered environments (such as residence halls and restrooms), deciding whether or not to transition physically to the “opposite” sex, negotiating intimate relationships outside of traditional male and female identities, accessing health care services supportive of transgender people, adjusting to a new social identity, and surviving discrimination and harassment (Ettner and Brown, 1999; Gould, 2004; Israel and Tarver,1997). The social and economic stresses that many transgender students experience as a result of family rejection, harassment, violence, and isolation can, in turn, lead to adjustment disorders, depression, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, depression, substance abuse, suicide ideation, and self-harm (Dean, 2000). These mental health issues may affect the academic success of transgender students, making access to supportive counseling even more important for this population. Although counseling may be encouraged for transgender people, especially for those who plan to undergo gender reassignment processes, being transgender should not be considered a mental illness.

Health Care

 All students need and deserve culturally competent primary health care to maintain healthy, productive lives. Although research on campus-based health services for transgender people is sparse, studies of general health care access for this population find that professionals typically lack accurate information about transgender people, severely limiting their ability to provide quality care. In one of the few college-based studies, McKinney (2005) found that transgender graduate students were more concerned than their undergraduate peers about health issues. The graduate student participants did not feel that campus health care systems met their needs—they often had to educate the providers about transgender health issues—and their limited health insurance coverage made it difficult for them to seek off-campus health care. In order to provide more competent and supportive health care, campus health center staff should educate themselves on transgender health issues and the specific needs of transgender people. In addition to informed and sensitive primary health care, transgender students need access to gender-specific services, including safe, affordable hormones and gender-related surgeries. If campus health insurance plans exclude transition-related services, student health personnel should advocate for expanded coverage and help students find alternate, off-campus care. The absence of appropriate health care may have a negative effect on the retention, academic success, and physical and mental well-being of transgender students Campuses across the country are beginning to improve the quality of health services for transgender students. Some colleges and universities are also implementing mandatory transgender education training sessions for health center staff, revising intake forms to be inclusive of transgender students and developing policies and procedures to help ensure that transgender students receive appropriate and supportive health services.

Conclusion

Colleges and universities can also develop a transgender ally program or speakers bureau, create a transgender FAQ bulletin board packet for residence halls, invite leading transgender speakers to campus, schedule a separate awareness week for transgender issues, include transgender-related information throughout the institution’s Web site, and offer regular training sessions for staff and students on transgender issues. Support Services. Support for transgender students is typically combined with support for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students. But many LGB student organizations and academic programs, even ones that include or have added “transgender” to their names in recent years, rarely address gender identity issues and often provide limited support to transgender students.