1) Each year there are huge annual reports

1)     
INTRODUCTION:-

Improving road safety through proper pavement
engineering and maintenance should be one of the major objectives of engineer.
When pavements are evaluated in terms of safety, a number of factors related to
pavement performance are raised, such as roughness, rutting, cracking, mobility
& speed (Cenek et. al. 2014). Each year there are huge annual reports on
traffic accident in Pakistan. According
to Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, in the last 10 years data on traffic
accidents present a terrible picture, as average 15 people died every day in
traffic accidents across the country (Traffic accident report, 2016 P.P 16). Therefore discussion of
such road safety issues as road safety modeling and pavement safety
measurements and criteria is necessary. The main pavement engineering
relationships associated with road safety should be identified, and the various
aspects of road safety related to pavement performance indicators should be
discussed.

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2)     
PROBLEM STATEMENT:-

 

With the passage of time, vehicles movement, and environmental
conditions road pavement deteriorate.  If
this deterioration is not properly addressed, the amount of surface distress
will increase and be harmful to traffic. 
In this sense, pavement surface characteristics are a significant issue
because of its influence in preserving roadway safety. Maintaining these
characteristics during pavement construction or rehabilitation may lessen or
even prevent crashes and incidents related to loss of vehicle control, slipping,
and excessive skidding.

Many road crash investigations and statistical analysis have
suggested that there is a relationship between crash frequency and pavement
surface characteristics (Noyce et. al.
2007). Additionally, a recent paper has suggested that little has been
done to incorporate pavement management and maintenance into roadway safety
evaluations (Tighe et. al. 2000).  Thus,
research is needed to confirm the relationship between crash frequency and
pavement surface characteristics, and to develop strategies to incorporate
these findings in roadway safety evaluations.

 

 

3)     
OBJECTIVES:-

 

Following are the main objectives of this
research:-

 

·        
To evaluate the correlation between traffic oriented parameters,
roadway safety and pavement performance indicators. 

·        
To identify / estimate threshold values of pavement performance
indicators, after which there is a need of improvement.

 

4)     
LITERATURE REVIEW:-

 

Various studies have been done using pavement
performance indicators i.e roughness, rutting, cracking, macro texture and skid
resistance to find its relationship with traffic safety. All of the studies show
that there is a strong relationship between pavement performance indicators and
traffic safety.

 

Salimi et. al. (2015) evaluated
the effect of friction behavior of tire with road surface in different road
conditions in winter i.e bare dry, dry with ice path and three levels of snow
surface which can be directly related to road safety. This study was done by
driving trucks at target speed of 30, 50 & 60 km/h on different road
conditions. No considerable correlation between vehicle speed and
the friction measurements for bare dry, ice- and snow-covered conditions was
found. But bare dry asphalt surface had the highest Halliday Friction Number
(HFN), presence of ice reduced the dry surface friction by 55%. For light,
moderate and heavy snow on the dry surface reduced the HFN further than ice, by
69, 75, and 81%. Analysis of the effect of number of truck passes over ice at  -3.5 and -5 °C showed that ice can become more
slippery after each pass of traf?c but for light snow, even at low temperatures
(